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Knowledge zone

How does the wind generate energy?
  • Wind stream generates the buoyancy force (uplift force) on the aerodynamically shaped rotor blades and sets rotor into rotation.
  • Rotor blades change the kinetic energy of the speeding air into the mechanical energy of the rotor. 
  • A spinning rotor drives a generator which converts mechanical energy of the rotor into low voltage electricity. 
  • The electricity is transferred to the transformer, which raises its voltage to the value required by the network to which the wind farm is connected


Relatively simple functioning principle, with the use of state-of-the-art technologies, makes the offshore wind energy one of the most important branches of the renewable energy sector.

In comparison to the onshore wind energy, the offshore branch is characterised by:
  • higher efficiency of the turbines, associated with higher stability and strength of the wind in maritime areas,
  • lack of technological constraints - turbines installed at sea may be considerably larger and more efficient.

The following tables present the technological differences between wind turbines used onshore and offshore, currently and in the 2020 and 2030 perspective:


Source: European Environment Agency, Europe’s onshore and offshore wind energy potential, 2009 and own analyses


Distribution of wind conditions in Europe in 2030:


Source: European Environment Agency, Europe’s onshore and offshore wind energy potential, 2009